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    2007年6月23日六级完型填空解析

    作者:孙新    文章来源:广州新东方学校    点击数:    更新时间:2009/10/6

    Historically, humans get serious about avoiding disasters only after one has just struck them. 62 that logic, 2006 should have been a breakthrough year for rational behavior. With the memory of 9/11 still 63 in their minds, Americans watched hurricane Katrina, the most expensive disaster in U.S. history, on 64 TV. Anyone who didn’t know it before should have learned that bad things can happen. And they are made 65 worse by our willful blindness to risk as much as our 66 to work together before everything goes to hell.

    Granted, some amount of delusion(错觉)is probably part of the 67 condition. In A.D. 63, Pompeii was seriously damaged by an earthquake, and the locals immediately went to work 68, in the same spot—until they were buried altogether by a volcano eruption 16 years later. But a 69 of the past year in disaster history suggests that modern Americans are particularly bad at 70 themselves from guaranteed threats. We know more than we 71 did about the dangers we face. But it turns 72 that in times of crisis, our greatest enemy is 73 the storm, the quake or the 74 itself. More often it is ourselves.

    So what has happened in the year that 75 the disaster on the Gulf Coast? In New Orleans, the Army Corps of Engineers has worked day and night to rebuild the flood walls. They have got the walls to 76 they were before Katrina, more or less. That’s not 77 , we can now say with confidence. But it may be all 78 can be expected from one year of hustle(忙碌).

    Meanwhile, New Orleans officials have crafted a plan to use buses and trains to 79 the sick and the disabled. The city estimates that 15,000 people will need a 80 out. However, state officials have not yet determined where these people will be taken. The 81 with neighboring communities are ongoing and difficult.

     

    B  62. A) To      B) By      C) On        D) For

    介词辨析。通过对前句的分析理解,知道人性的本质—只有在遭受了痛苦之后才会重视痛苦,于是后句紧跟的连词应该是表示解释说明,而to为至于,on为在…上面,for为因果连词,只有by可以表示通过。   

    A  63. A) fresh    B) obvious  C) apparent    D) evident

          词义辨析?忌蹩幢咎庖晕疾斓氖莖bvious, apparent, evident的词义辨析,三个词都表示明显的意思,但是根据文章的意思,此处应该是表示记忆犹新的意思,因此只有一个fresh表示的是新鲜。

    C  64. A) visual   B) vivid     C) live       D) lively

          词义辨析。本题考察更多的是常识性的问题。Live这个单词除了有生活的意思之外,还有现场直播的意思。而剩余的混淆项完全是在误导学生,visual为视觉的,vivid为生动活泼的,lively为活泼的意思。

    D  65. A) little     B) less     C) more      D) much

          词义辨析。在比较级前面添加副词,只能用副词原级,不能再用比较级。B和C显然错误。根据文章的感情色彩,文章表示的是贬义,在嘲笑人们喜欢做马后炮的事情,因此用much不用little.

    A  66. A) reluctance B) rejection  C) denial     D) decline

          词义辨析。Reluctance不情愿,rejection拒绝 denial否定 decline 拒绝。本题一看也仿佛是辨析BCD三个表示否定的词义。但是通过分析这个复杂句我们看到了前面的一个关键词willful blindness. 这个词组近年来在欧美属于流行词汇,频繁的出现在各大媒体中。他的英文解释是Willful blindness is a term used in law to describe a situation in which an individual seeks to avoid civil or criminal liability for a wrongful act by intentionally putting himself in a position where he will be unaware of facts.中文解释简单来说就是“装傻”。而复杂句可以翻译成,因为人们都在装傻事情变得更糟糕,除非真的死到临头了,否则人们都会尽最大可能不合作。而这里用reluctance,正好和前面的willful成反义词对应。

     

    D  67. A) natural   B) social    C) world      D) human

          词义辨析。与其说这个是考察词义辨析,不如说是在超越大学生的理解能力考察一个固定搭配human condition.看到这个搭配,学生的瞬间逻辑推理是人为因素,但是实际该词组表示人的生存条件的意思。

    C  68. A) revising  B) refining   C) rebuilding  D) retrieving

          词义辨析。Revising修订,refining提炼,rebuilding重建,retrieving重新得到。地震之后要干什么呢?当然就是重建了。因此这种题目关键是看句子前面的连词and.

    A  69. A) review   B) reminder  C) concept    D) prospect

          词义辨析。Review回顾,reminder提醒,暗示,concept概念,prospect希望。句子开头一个强转折BUT,表示后面要说的和前面的内容是相反的意思。同时,后面有一个history,通过这个单词就知道前面用review。

    C  70. A) preparing  B) protesting C) protecting  D) prevailing

          固定搭配。 protect  sb.  from sth ;つ橙嗣馐苣呈。Prepare准备,protest抗议,prevail流行,成功。

    B  71. A) never     B) ever     C) then       D) before

          词义辨析。对于我们所面临的灾难,我们比以前知道的更多。本句中did是用助动词取代实意动词know。因此这里的连词只能用ever表示以前,而before做副词时一定放在句末或后跟名词。

    D  72. A) up       B) down     C) over      D) out

          固定搭配。Turn out that/ turn out to be sth 证明。Turn up出现,turn down拒绝,turn over营业额/反复考虑

    B  73. A) merely   B) rarely    C) incidentally D) accidentally

          词义辨析。本题涉及两组词,一个是merely和rarely,merely表示仅仅,只不过的意思,rarely表示极少,罕有的意思。而incidentally和accidentally均表示巧合。关键在于区分merely和rarely就可以得出答案。

    A  74. A) surge     B) spur      C) surf       D) splash

          词义辨析。本题实际考察的单词是形近且意思相差很远的一些单词。Surge表示汹涌澎湃,做动词有急速上升的意思 spur刺激,穿刺 surf海浪,做动词有冲浪的意思 splash溅。这种考察方法很常见但是对同学做题来说很容易。

    C  75. A) ensued       B) traced       C) followed       D) occurred

          词义辨析。Ensue相继发生,不及物动词,trace追踪,追溯, follow跟随,occur发生,出现。本题考察的就是对ensue,trace,follow三个表示跟随的单词的熟词僻意。Ensue是不及物动词,不能直接跟名词连用,trace的主语应该是人,而这里也只有follow表示的是时间的紧随状态。

    B  76. A) which        B) where       C) what          D) when

          语法判断。这里考察了英文歌词里面经常出现的一句话,例如在EAGLES的Hotel California中就有这样一句话。本题明显是考察简单的定语从句的理解能力。

    A  77. A) enough       B) certain      C) conclusive      D) final

          逻辑推理。这里在我们生活中也有特别熟悉的句型代表。比如说在天下无贼中刘若英就说过这样的话:You should be sorry to me, but only sorry is not enough.这也就是英语完型中所谓的语感的来源。而在本句中,我们的推理方式就是结合下一句的BUT转折词分析,得出做的事情是不足够的,但是也只能做那么多了,表达了无奈。

    C  78. A) but          B) as          C) that            D) those

          固定搭配。All that=what,all but=几乎,差一点,all those=复数形式的what。 而本题开头主语是it,因此只能用all that。

    B  79. A) exile         B) evacuate     C) dismiss        D) displace

          词义辨析。Exile为放逐,evacuate为撤离,疏散,排出,dismiss为解职 displace为转移。本题完全是考察学生对六级的一些生僻词汇的记忆。

    A  80. A) ride         B) trail         C) path           D) track

          固定搭配。学生不经常接触的一些词组的搭配是学生在做题目中的盲点。比如本题就是一个典型例题。学生乍一看四个单词都认识,但是就是不知道哪个单词后面能跟OUT连用。Ride out为安全过度,track out为追踪,这就要学生对平时的英语阅读有所积累。

    D  81. A) conventions   B)notifications  C) communications  D) negotiations

          词义辨析。Convention大会,习俗,notification通知,communication交流,negotiation协商。本题的关键在于对于neighboring communities的理解。其实就是接壤的城市的意思,在美国,community更多的被用做社区的含义。本句是对上前一句的解释和说明,前一句说事情尚未决定,因此本句就说明如何解决问题的。而这个进程又是困难的,因此只有negotiation能够出现困境,固而选择negotiation.

     

    今年六级词汇考察的重点在完型填空中,其中考察的单词词义辨析题目在20题中就占据了14道题目,可见词汇的功底和核心都汇集于完型当中考察了。

    这次六级的完型填空的文章选自2006年8月20日TIME上的一篇文章《Why We Don't Prepare》中的第五到第八段。“全真七子”始终改变不了偷懒的坏习惯,因此我们也可以告诉自己,其实准备六级考试的完型填空,今后多看英文杂志就好了。

    即便是这么简单的题目中,我们还是需要发掘出题者的根本思维方式。在这次的新题型的考察中我们惊奇的发现了几个特点:

    1)完型填空20道题目的80个选项中,仅仅有11个选项的单词是六级大纲的词汇,分别是decline,rebuild,retrieve,surge,surf,ensue,exile,evacuate,displace,notification和negotiation。占据了选项的13%,而剩余的87%的单词都是四级的大纲词汇。这充分说明了六级考试始终还是四级的继承与发扬,离不开对于四级的依赖。因此六级的词汇量和四级并没有太大扩充。六级考试实际上不过还是考四级那点东西。

    2)本次完型填空总共有329个词,符合六级考试大纲要求。但是在329个单词中,除去20个选项单词,剩余的309个词只有breakthrough, hurricane, willful, delusion, eruption,hustle和ongo这7个单词不是四级大纲中的单词,而且文章中还给出了delusion和hustle的意思。这再次印证了六级单词的考察量与四级区别并不大。

    3)本次完型填空中,总共分为四大段共20句话,其中长难句占据了14句话,这是一个很大的比重,因此我们在重视单词的学习时,不能忽视的一点就是对于长难句的拆解分析能力。

    4)长难句中再次考察了语法上的一大难点:比较结构。这个东西极端的混淆学生对于长难句的理解和文章意义的分析。作为理解中的难点,比较结构应当成为我们今后在语法学习中的重点,也一定是今后题目考察的核心价值。

    5)关于完型填空的几个解题技巧是我们需要注意的。第一,连词前后的句意思分析,究竟前后句是转折,并列还是因果关系,需要学生特别注意;第二,文章的感情色彩的掌握,本文明显是一篇感情色彩偏于贬义的文章,因此把握好文章的中心是学生在选择之前要做到的。第三,抓住关键词解决问题,文章中有一些关键词的出现,影响学生对题目的本身进行判断,需要正确理解这些关键词。第四,对于常识性的单词一词多意的分析能力。平时多关注生活便可以对一些熟词做到迅速僻义。

    6)难得的一点是,今年的六级考试出现的文章主题是不积极向上的,这个的确和我们的惯性思维不太一样,这种批判性的文章确实在历史上很少出现。如果将这个看作是一次趋势的话,那么今后在学习过程中要关注的范围将增加。

     

    附原文:

    Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Wildfires, Earthquakes ... Why We Don't Prepare
    By AMANDA RIPLEY/ BOULDER
    Posted Sunday, Aug. 20, 2006
    Every July the country's leading disaster scientists and emergency planners gather in Boulder, Colo., for an invitation-only workshop. Picture 440 people obsessed with the tragic and the safe, people who get excited about earthquake shake maps and righteous about flood insurance. It's a spirited but wonky crowd that is growing more melancholy every year.
    After 9/11, the people at the Boulder conference decried the nation's myopic focus on terrorism. They lamented the decline of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). And they warned to the point of cliché that a major hurricane would destroy New Orleans. It was a convention of prophets without any disciples.
    This year, perhaps to make the farce explicit, the event organizers, from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado, Boulder, introduced a parlor game. They placed a ballot box next to the water pitchers and asked everyone to vote: What will be the next mega-disaster? A tsunami, an earthquake, a pandemic flu? And where will it strike? It was an amusing diversion, although not a hard question for this lot.
    Because the real challenge in the U.S. today is not predicting catastrophes. That we can do. The challenge that apparently lies beyond our grasp is to prepare for them. Dennis Mileti ran the Natural Hazards Center for 10 years, and is the country's leading expert on how to warn people so that they will pay attention. Today he is semi retired, but he comes back to the workshop each year to preach his gospel. This July, standing before the crowd in a Hawaiian shirt, Mileti was direct: How many citizens must die? How many people do you need to see pounding through their roofs? Like most people there, Mileti was heartbroken by Katrina, and he knows he'll be heartbroken again. We know exactly--exactly--where the major disasters will occur, he told me later. But individuals under-perceive risk.
    Historically, humans get serious about avoiding disasters only after one has just smacked them across the face. Well, then, by that logic, 2006 should have been a breakthrough year for rational behavior. With the memory of 9/11, the worst terrorist attack in U.S. history, still fresh in their minds, Americans watched Katrina, the most expensive disaster in U.S. history, on live TV. Anyone who didn't know it before should have learned that bad things can happen. And they are made much worse by our own lack of ambition--our willful blindness to risk as much as our reluctance to work together before everything goes to hell.
    Granted, some amount of delusion is probably part of the human condition. In A.D. 63, Pompeii was seriously damaged by an earthquake, and the locals immediately went to work rebuilding, in the same spot--until they were buried altogether by a volcano 16 years later. But a review of the past year in disaster history suggests that modern Americans are particularly, mysteriously bad at protecting themselves from guaranteed threats. We know more than we ever did about the dangers we face. But it turns out that in times of crisis, our greatest enemy is rarely the storm, the quake or the surge itself. More often, it is ourselves.
    •A Tour of the American Hazardscape
    So what has happened in the year that followed the carnival of negligence on the Gulf Coast? In New Orleans, the Army Corps of Engineers has worked day and night--like men bailing a sinking ship, literally--to rebuild the bulwarks. They have got the flood walls and levees to where they were before Katrina, more or less. That's, er, not enough, we can now say with confidence. But it may be all that can be expected from one year of hustle.
    Meanwhile, New Orleans officials have, to their credit, crafted a plan to use buses and trains to evacuate the sick, the disabled and the carless before the next big hurricane. The city estimates that 15,000 people will need a ride out. However, state officials have not yet determined where the trains and buses will take everyone. The negotiations with neighboring communities are ongoing and difficult.
    More encouraging is the fact that Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco and the state legislature managed to pass mandatory building codes this year. Most states already have such codes. Florida has had a strict one in place since 2001, and structures built under it tend to be the ones left standing after a 120 m.p.h. wind rips through. We know that for every dollar spent on that kind of basic mitigation, society saves an average of $4, according to a 2005 report by the nonprofit National Institute of Building Sciences. Then there's Mississippi, which, believe it or not, still has no statewide building code. Katrina destroyed 68,729 houses there. But this year a proposed mandatory code, opposed by many builders, real estate lobbyists and homeowners, ended up voluntary.
    At the same time, Mississippi has helped coastal towns develop creative plans for rebuilding more intelligently. New Orleans, however, still has no central agency or person in charge of rebuilding. The city's planning office is down to nine people, from 24 before Katrina, and it really needs 65, according to the American Planning Association. And the imperative to rebuild the wetlands that protect against storms, much discussed in the weeks after Katrina and just as important as the levees, gets less attention every day. Worst of all, Mayor Ray Nagin and the city council are still not talking honestly about the fact that New Orleans will have to occupy a much smaller footprint in the future. It simply can't provide city services across its old boundaries, and its old boundaries cannot realistically be defended against a major storm anytime soon.
    Here is the reality of New Orleans' risk profile, present and future: Donald Powell, the banker appointed by President George W. Bush to run the reconstruction effort, said last December, The Federal Government is committed to building the best levee system known in the world. As of right now, the Corps plans to spend $6 billion to make sure that by 2010, the city will (probably) be flooded only once every 100 years. That's not close to the best in the world. The Netherlands has a system designed to protect populated areas against anything but a 1-in-10,000-years flood. Alternatively, the Corps could build 1-in-500-year protection for the city, but that would cost about $30 billion, says Ivor van Heerden, deputy director of Louisiana State University's Hurricane Center.
    It may be unfair, but this is the reality New Orleans leaders should be talking about. In a TIME poll of 1,000 Americans taken this month, 56% said they did not think all of New Orleans should be rebuilt if it might flood again. But in New Orleans, a city cut through with racial distrust and anger over the Corps' faulty levees, the same conversation is laced with suspicion. There is enough high ground in New Orleans for the city to relocate the entire pre-Katrina population more safely. The mostly African-American Lower Ninth Ward could still exist; it would just need to be smaller. But for many locals, rebuilding in the same doomed locations has become a point of pride, of dignity--just the opposite of what it should be. When a planning panel brought in by Nagin's Bring Back New Orleans Commission--comprising 50 specialists in urban and post-disaster planning--late last year proposed holding off on redeveloping places that had flooded repeatedly until residents had more information, the traumatized population recoiled as one. The city council quickly passed a defiant and suicidal resolution: All neighborhoods [should] be included in the timely and simultaneous rebuilding of all New Orleans neighborhoods. (编辑:HD)

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